English Grammar

Grammar Home | Table of Contents | Alphabetical Index

TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE USES AND FORMATION OF THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES

THE ACTIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW

THE VERB TO BE AND THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW

COMMON ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS

CHAPTER 1. The simple present of the verb to be
    1. Grammar
    2. Verb forms
    3. Uses of the simple present tense
    4. The simple present of the verb to be
         a. Affirmative statements
         b. Questions
         c. Negative statements
         d. Negative questions
         e. Tag questions
    Exercises

CHAPTER 2. The simple present of verbs other than the verb to be
    1. The formation of the simple present
         a. The simple present of the verb to have
    2. Spelling rules for adding s in the third person singular
         a. Verbs ending in y
         b. Verbs ending in o
         c. Verbs ending in ch, s, sh, x or z
    3. Pronunciation of the es ending
    4. The auxiliary do
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
         d. Tag questions
         e. The verb to have
    Exercises

CHAPTER 3. The present continuous
    1. Uses of the present continuous
    2. Formation of the present continuous
    3. Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle
         a. Verbs ending in a silent e
         b. Verbs ending in ie
         c. One-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
         d. Verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
    4. Questions and negative statements
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
         d. Tag questions
    5. Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous
    Exercises

CHAPTER 4. The present perfect and the present perfect continuous
    1. Use of the present perfect
    2. Formation of the present perfect: Regular verbs
    3. Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle
         a. Verbs ending in a silent e
         b. Verbs ending in y
         c. Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
    4. Pronunciation of the ed ending
    5. Formation of the present perfect: Irregular verbs
    6. Questions and negative statements
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
         d. Tag questions
    7. The present perfect continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    Exercises

CHAPTER 5. The simple past
    1. Uses of the simple past
    2. Formation of the simple past
         a. The verb to be
             i. Questions and negative statements
         b. Other verbs
             i. Questions and negative statements
    3. The simple past of to use followed by an infinitive
    Exercises

CHAPTER 6. The past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous
    1. Summary of the uses of the English tenses
    2. The past continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    3. The past perfect
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    4. The past perfect continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    5. Summary of the formation of the English present and past tenses
    6. Emphatic statements
    Exercises

CHAPTER 7. The future tenses
    1. The simple future
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    2. The conjugation expressing determination and compulsion
    3. The present continuous of to go followed by an infinitive
    4. The future continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    5. The future perfect
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    6. The future perfect continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    7. Summary of the formation of the English future tenses
    8. Clauses
         a. Coordinate clauses
         b. Subordinate clauses
         c. The past perfect and the simple past
         d. The use of the present in subordinate clauses to express future actions
    Exercises

CHAPTER 8. Conjugations with the auxiliary would
    1. Uses of the auxiliary would
    2. Formation of conjugations with the auxiliary would
         a. The simple conjugation with the auxiliary would
         b. The continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would
         c. The perfect conjugation with the auxiliary would
         d. The perfect continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would
    3. Summary of the formation of the conjugations with the auxiliary would
    4. The "future in the past"
    Exercises

CHAPTER 9. The subjunctive
    1. Uses of the subjunctive
    2. Formation of the subjunctive
    3. Formal commands and requests
    4. Wishes
         a. An earlier time
         b. The same time
         c. A later time
         d. Summary
         e. Use of the auxiliary could in expressing wishes
    5. Conditions which are false or improbable
         a. Forms of the verb used in the main clause
             i. Referring to present or future time
             ii. Referring to past time
             iii. Summary
             iv. Use of the auxiliary could in sentences containing false or improbable conditions
         b. Forms of the verb used in the subordinate clause
             i. Referring to present or future time
             ii. Referring to past time
             iii. Summary
         c. Changing a statement containing a probable condition into a statement containing an improbable condition
    6. The imperative mood
    Exercises

CHAPTER 10. Modal verbs
    1. Formation of the modal conjugations
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
         d. Tag questions
    2. Relationships among the modal auxiliaries
    3. Can and could
    4. May, might and must
    5. Should
    6. Expressions Which are synonymous with the modal auxiliaries
         a. The pronunciation of have to
    7. The use of auxiliaries in tag questions, short answers and ellipsis
         a. Negative tag questions
         b. Affirmative tag questions
         c. Short answers
         d. Ellipsis
    Exercises

CHAPTER 11. Transitive and intransitive verbs
    1. Direct objects
    2. Lay and lie, raise and rise and set and sit
         a. To lay and to lie
         b. To raise and to rise
         c. To set and to sit
    3. Indirect objects
    Exercises

CHAPTER 12. The passive voice
    1. Use of the passive voice
    2. Formation of the indicative mood of the passive voice
         a. The Simple Present indicative
         b. The other indicative tenses
         c. Summary of the formation of the indicative tenses of the passive voice
    3. Questions and negative statements
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
    4. Changing the voice of a verb
    5. Changing the voice of a verb while preserving the meaning of a sentence
         a. Changing the verb from the active voice to the passive voice
         b. Changing the verb from the passive voice to the active voice
         c. Changing the voice of a verb which takes both a direct object and an indirect object
    6. The subjunctive mood of the passive voice
         a. Use of the simple present subjunctive
         b. Use of the past forms of the subjunctive
    Exercises

CHAPTER 13. Nouns: The formation of plurals
    1. Proper nouns
    2. Countable nouns
    3. The formation of plurals
         a. Nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z
         b. Nouns ending in y
         c. Plurals of proper nouns
         d. Nouns ending in f or fe
         e. Nouns ending in o
         f. Foreign words
         g. Hyphenated nouns
         h. Numbers and letters
         i. Irregular plurals
    Exercises

CHAPTER 14. Singular countable nouns
    1. The use of determiners with singular countable nouns
    2. A and an
    3. The use of a and an before singular countable nouns
         a. A weakened form of one
         b. Naming a profession
         c. Making a general statement
         d. Referring to something not mentioned before
         e. A or an with the meaning of per
    4. The use of the before singular countable nouns
         a. Referring to something mentioned before
         b. Referring to something unique
         c. Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
         d. Referring to something as a class
    Exercises

CHAPTER 15. Plural countable nouns
    1. The absence of a determiner before plural countable nouns
         a. Making a general statement
         b. Referring to something not mentioned before
         c. Naming a profession
    2. The Use of The Before plural countable nouns
         a. Referring to something mentioned before
         b. Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
         c. Names of nationalities
         d. Adjectives referring to classes of people
    3. The use of the with proper nouns
         a. Names of people
         b. Names of places
    4. Nouns used only in the plural
    Exercises

CHAPTER 16. Uncountable nouns
    1. The absence of a determiner before uncountable nouns
         a. Making a general statement
         b. Referring to something not mentioned before
    2. The use of the before uncountable nouns
         a. Referring to something mentioned before
         b. Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
    3. The use of uncountable nouns to refer to individual things
    4. Nouns which can be either countable or uncountable
         a. Differences in meaning
         b. Referring to a type of something
         c. Referring to places used for specific activities
         d. Names of meals
    5. Infinitives used in the place of nouns
    6. Gerunds
    7. Specific verbs followed by infinitives and gerunds
         a. Verbs followed by infinitives
         b. Verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds
         c. Verbs followed by gerunds
    Exercises

CHAPTER 17. Nouns indicating possession and compound subjects
    1. Ways in which possession is indicated
         a. The ending s
         b. The ending s'
         c. Phrases beginning with of
         d. Two consecutive nouns
    2. Agreement of verbs with collective nouns and compound subjects
         a. Collective nouns
         b. Amounts considered as a whole
         c. Compound subjects
             i. Compound subjects with and
             ii. Compound subjects with or or nor
         d. Nouns followed by descriptive phrases
    Exercises

CHAPTER 18. Personal pronouns
    1. The subjective case
    2. Agreement of personal pronouns with their antecedents
         a. Male and female antecedents
         b. Singular and plural antecedents
         c. Human and non-human antecedents
    3. Special uses of it
    4. The objective case
    5. Possessive personal pronouns
         a. Possessive adjectives
             i. Possessive adjectives used with gerunds
         b. Possessive pronouns
    6. Reflexive pronouns
    Exercises

CHAPTER 19. Other pronouns
    1. Indefinite pronouns
         a. The use of one in general statements
    2. Reciprocal pronouns
    3. Demonstrative pronouns
    4. Interrogative pronouns
         a. Direct questions
         b. The pronoun who
             i. Who
             ii. Whom
             iii. Whose
         c. What and which
         d. Indirect questions
             i. Interrogative word as the subject
             ii. Interrogative word as the object of a verb or preposition
             iii. The verb to be with a noun or pronoun complement
    5. Relative pronouns
         a. Defining and non-defining relative clauses
             i. Non-defining relative clauses
             ii. Defining relative clauses
         b. That
         c. Which
         d. Who, whom and whose
         e. Comparison of the use of that, which and who
         f. Other relative pronouns
    Exercises

CHAPTER 20. Determiners
    1. Determiners used to refer to groups of two persons or things
    2. Determiners used as singular or plural pronouns
    3. The use of all, both and each
    4. The use of no, none and not
    5. The use of some and any
    6. The use of another, other, others and else
    7. The use of only
    8. The use of few, little and several
    9. The expressions such ... that, so ... that and too
         a. Such ... that
         b. So ... that
         c. Too
    Exercises

CHAPTER 21. Adjectives: Position in a sentence
    1. Proper adjectives
    2. Attributive adjectives
         a. Order of attributive adjectives
             i. Determiners
             ii. General descriptive adjectives
             iii. Adjectives indicating color
             iv. Adjectives indicating materials
             v. The position of proper adjectives
             vi. Defining adjectives
             vii. Ordinal adjectives
         b. Punctuation used with attributive adjectives
         c. Stress used with attributive adjectives
             i. Adjectives indicating materials
             ii. Defining adjectives indicating location or time
             iii. Defining adjectives indicating purpose
    3. Predicate adjectives
         a. Attributive adjectives which can be used as predicate adjectives
             i. Order
             ii. Punctuation
         b. Adjectives which can be used only as predicate adjectives
         c. Linking verbs
    4. Interpolated adjectives
    5. Adjectival phrases and clauses
    6. Participles used as adjectives
         a. Present participles
         b. Past participles
         c. Dangling participles
         d. Past participles which follow the verb to be
    Exercises

CHAPTER 22. Adjectives used in comparisons: Part I
    1. Positive forms of adjectives preceded and followed by as
         a. The positive form combined with a noun
         b. The use of ellipsis
         c. The use of the subjective case
    2. Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives which use endings
         a. Comparative forms of adjectives which use endings
             i. Spelling rules
             ii. Irregular adjectives
             iii. The comparative form followed by than
             iv. The comparative form followed by a noun, followed by than
             v. The use of ellipsis
             vi. The use of the subjective case
             vii. Progressive comparisons
         b. Superlative forms of adjectives which use endings
             i. Spelling rules
             ii. Irregular adjectives
             iii. The superlative form preceded by the
             iv. The use of ellipsis
             v. The comparison of one or more things with a group
    Exercises

CHAPTER 23. Adjectives used in comparisons: Part 2
    1. Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives which do not use endings
         a. Comparative forms: The use of more
             i. The comparative form followed by than
             ii. Progressive comparisons
         b. The use of less
             i. The construction less ... than
             ii. The construction not as ... as
             iii. The construction less and less
         c. Superlative forms
    2. The adjectives many, much, few and little used to compare quantities
         a. The use of many, much, few and little with countable and uncountable nouns
         b. Synonyms for many and much
         c. Positive forms used in comparisons
         d. Comparative forms used in comparisons
         e. Superlative forms used in comparisons
    3. The adjectives similar, different and same used in comparisons
    4. Making logical comparisons
    Exercises

CHAPTER 24. Adverbs: Position in a sentence
    1. Adverbs which modify adjectives and other adverbs
         a. Intensifiers
    2. Adverbs which modify verbs
         a. Adverbs of frequency
         b. Adverbs of time
         c. Adverbs of manner
         d. Connecting adverbs
         e. Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose
         f. Adverbs of location
             i. Here and there
             ii. There used as an introductory word
             iii. Inverted word order
         g. Negative adverbs
             i. Double negatives
             ii. Inverted word order
    3. Interrogative adverbs
    Exercises

CHAPTER 25. Adverbs of manner and adverbs used in comparisons
    1. Adverbs of manner
         a. Spelling rules for adding ly
             i. Adjectives ending in ic
             ii. Adjectives ending in le
             iii. Adjectives ending in ll
             iv. Adjectives ending in ue
             v. Adjectives ending in y
         b. Adverbs which do not use the ending ly
         c. The differing functions of adjectives and adverbs
             i. Adjectives which modify nouns compared with adverbs which modify verbs
             ii. Adjectives which modify nouns compared with adverbs which modify adjectives
             iii. Predicate adjectives which modify the subjects of verbs compared with adverbs which modify verbs
    2. Adverbs used in comparisons
         a. The formation of comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
             i. Adverbs used with more and most
             ii. Adverbs used with the endings er and est
             iii. Irregular adverbs
         b. Positive forms of adverbs used in comparisons
             i. The construction with as ... as
             ii. Ellipsis
         c. Comparative forms of adverbs used in comparisons
             i. The construction with than
             ii. Progressive comparisons
             iii. The construction with less and less
             iv. The construction with the ..., the ...
         d. Superlative forms of adverbs used in comparisons
             i. The construction with the
             ii. The construction with the least
    Exercises

CHAPTER 26. Prepositions
    1. The meanings of prepositions
    2. Idioms beginning with prepositions
    3. Nouns followed by prepositions
    4. Adjectives and verbs in the passive voice followed by prepositions
    5. Verbs followed by prepositions
    Exercises

CHAPTER 27. Phrasal verbs
    1. Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by a preposition
         a. The position of the object of the preposition
         b. The position of an adverb of manner modifying the verb
         c. Stress in spoken English
         d. Expressions in which the verb has an object
    2. Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by an adverb
         a. The position of the object of the verb
         b. The position of an adverb of manner modifying the verb
         c. Stress in spoken English
         d. Ergative verbs
    3. Distinguishing between verbs followed by prepositions and verbs followed by adverbs
         a. Adverb phrases of location compared with phrasal verbs followed by objects
         b. Words used as prepositions or adverbs
    4. Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by a word which can function either as an adverb or as a preposition
         a. Expressions in which the verb has an object
    5. Phrasal verbs consisting of a verb followed by an adverb followed by a preposition
         a. Expressions in which the verb has an object
    Exercises

CHAPTER 28. Conjunctions
    1. Coordinate conjunctions
    2. Correlative conjunctions
    3. Subordinate conjunctions
    4. Connecting adverbs
         a. Stress and punctuation
         b. Connecting adverbs used to connect sentences
         c. Position in a clause
         d. Examples of connecting adverbs
    5. Parallel construction
    Exercises

Grammar Home | Table of Contents | Alphabetical Index

 

Additional Links