EXERCISES for CHAPTER 21. ADJECTIVES: POSITION IN A SENTENCE1. Combine each of the following phrases with the adjective given in brackets by changing the adjective to a pronoun, and using the word of. For example:
an original recipe (our)
an original recipe of ours
these red scarves (either)
either of these red scarves
the old movies (no)
none of the old movies
1. that new bicycle (my)
2. the students (each)
3. those leather briefcases (neither)
4. these two books (your)
5. her latest inventions (some)
6. that second-hand typewriter (his)
7. their unusual experiences (another)
8. these rubber boots (no)
9. that velvet dress (her)
10. those black shoes (any)
2. Place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying nouns, arranging the adjectives in the correct order. For example:
cats (two, my)
my two cats
apples (these, three)
these three apples
people (other, four)
four other people
chairs (more, seven)
seven more chairs
1. maps (our, ten)
2. cows (twenty-five, all)
3. book (one, that)
4. socks (other, six)
5. lamps (those, twenty)
6. icicles (two, the)
7. manuscripts (her, three)
8. folders (twelve, these)
9. mistakes (other, seven)
10. pencils (more, two)
11. questions (another, five)
12. children (three, which)
3. Place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying nouns, arranging the adjectives in the correct order. For example:
bags (heavy, three)
three heavy bags
windows (two, large, the)
the two large windows
1. envelopes (large, four, her)
2. tables (small, both, the)
3. birds (tiny, those, three)
4. brothers (tall, two, her)
5. quilts (six, thick, all)
6. coats (heavy, his, two)
7. rooms (these, four, huge)
8. pumpkins (ten, his, medium-sized)
4. Place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying nouns, arranging the adjectives in the correct order. Make sure that the general descriptive adjectives are separated from one another by commas. For example:
mirror (small, octagonal, the, highly-polished)
the small, highly-polished, octagonal mirror
horses (frisky, their, young, three)
their three frisky, young horses
1. jacket (light, your, short-sleeved)
2. lenses (curved, small, three)
3. puppy (four-week-old, our, damp, warm)
4. discoveries (two, unexpected)
5. carpet (heavy, a, round, thick)
6. climate (humid, hot, the)
7. blankets (dry, warm)
8. table (low, oval, their)
5. Place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying nouns, arranging the adjectives in the correct order. For example:
cloth (cotton, purple)
purple cotton cloth
vases (Chinese, blue)
blue Chinese vases
1. tents (canvas, green)
2. houses (Victorian, crimson)
3. curtains (white, lace)
4. cheese (Swiss, yellow)
5. ladders (wooden, brown)
6. blinds (pink, Venetian)
7. hats (felt, black)
8. cabinets (Renaissance, red)
6. Place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying nouns, arranging the adjectives in the correct order. Make sure that the general descriptive adjectives are separated from one another by commas. For example:
skirt (beautiful, black, new, velvet, a)
a beautiful, new black velvet skirt
fossils (Devonian, three, white, small)
three small white Devonian fossils
box (brass, her, square, heavy)
her heavy, square brass box
1. belt (green, beautiful, leather, a)
2. hood (dry, his, warm)
3. actors (old, two, Shakespearian, famous)
4. beads (glass, round, blue, tiny)
5. baby (lively, her, six-month-old)
6. dress (satin, a, white, long)
7. steps (narrow, cement, ten)
8. basement (cool, damp, the)
9. wolfhounds (Russian, two, grey, huge)
10. carvings (delicate, sandalwood, three)
7. Rewrite the following phrases, changing the underlined words to defining adjectives. For example:
black boots used for hiking
black hiking boots
a plastic cup used for holding eggs
a plastic egg cup
a green carton used for storing milk
a green milk carton
1. a new beater used for beating eggs
2. a wooden ladle used for serving soup
3. a large tin used for storing cookies
4. an old brush used for scrubbing
5. a glass plate used for baking pies
6. a light shovel used for shoveling snow
7. a metal rack used for storing hats
8. leather shoes used for jogging
9. a small house used for storing boats
10. a wicker basket used for holding bread
8. Paying attention to the usual order of attributive adjectives, place the adjectives given in brackets before the accompanying fixed expressions. Insert commas between the adjectives where appropriate. For example:
cuckoo clock (brown, a, Swiss, small)
a small brown Swiss cuckoo clock
life jackets (foam, thick, orange, three, new)
three thick, new orange foam life jackets
1. watering can (round, a, heavy, metal)
2. salt shaker (white, beautiful, porcelain, her)
3. computer games (Nintendo, new, two, exciting)
4. rose bush (prickly, small, two-year-old, this)
5. table cloths (cotton, these, pink)
6. willow branches (green, trailing, long)
7. fire engines (medium-sized, red, two)
8. coffee cup (his, yellow, heavy)
9. flower beds (heart-shaped, five, beautifully-designed)
10. front door (imposing, the, blue)
11. flower pot (green, big, plastic, that)
12. bath towel (damp, a, white, warm, flannel)
13. city buses (beige, ten, efficient, large)
14. watch dog (one-year-old, fierce, small, their)
9. Explain how the following expressions differ in meaning:
the last interesting chapter
the interesting last chapter
10. Underline the attributive adjectives in the following paragraph, and insert commas where necessary.
At one end of the large old rectangular room was a long low sofa covered with an orange cotton cloth. Against the two wooden arms of the sofa rested red velvet cushions with beautiful long dangling silk tassels. Near the sofa was a small intricately-woven Persian carpet with a fascinating design. Two proud elegant peacocks with shimmering turquoise feathers were depicted against a background of short lush grass, clear reflecting pools, and white marble statues in a delightful palace garden.
11. Paying attention to the types of adjectives which immediately precede the nouns, for each of the following phrases, underline the word or words which receive the most stress in spoken English. For example:
a big black box
a big black box
a yellow straw hat
a yellow straw hat
convenient downtown shopping
convenient downtown shopping
an ordinary Monday morning
an ordinary Monday morning
a towel rack
a towel rack
1. soup bowls
2. a convenient cupboard
3. underwater photography
4. the telephone directory
5. rubber gloves
6. a bread board
7. a sunny day
8. a new kitchen sink
9. long green grass
10. a fine Sunday afternoon
11. a red pencil sharpener
12. the back door
13. a prancing horse
14. an egg beater
15. a gold watch
16. a glass jar
17. a library card
18. the evening star
19. a thick carpet
20. a butter dish
12. Using the Simple Present of the verb to be, rewrite the following phrases as sentences, changing the attributive adjectives to predicate adjectives, and making any other changes that are required. For example:
the strong wind
The wind is strong.
the thick, warm shirts
The shirts are thick and warm.
the lively, interesting, entertaining festivals
The festivals are lively, interesting and entertaining.
the long, broad, well-managed, intensively-cultivated estate
The estate is long, broad, well-managed and intensively-cultivated.
the three-day-old colts
The colts are three days old.
1. the hot water
2. the large, threatening grey clouds
3. the thin blue book
4. the Spanish recipe
5. the one-year-old park
6. the collapsible umbrellas
7. the large white basins
8. the detailed, colorful, captivating painting
9. the two-year-old child
10. the purple cloth
11. the fast, efficient service
12. the ten-month-old houses
13. the intelligent, hard-working, responsible, reliable student
14. the long, well-written, informative letters
13. Paying attention to which adjectives are normally used only attributively and which are normally used only predicatively, write phrases or sentences in which the adjectives shown in brackets modify the accompanying nouns. Write a phrase if the adjective can be used only attributively, and write a sentence if the adjective can be used only predicatively. For example:
the bird (alive)
The bird is alive.
1. the children (asleep)
2. the street (main)
3. our friends (here)
4. their assistant (afraid)
5. the consideration (principal)
6. her brother (alone)
7. the performers (ready)
8. the cliffs (sheer)
9. the house (there)
10. the reason (chief)
14. Using the Simple Past tense of the verbs shown in brackets, change the following phrases into sentences in which the adjectives are used as predicate adjectives. For example:
the beautiful music (to sound)
The music sounded beautiful.
the delicious stew (to smell)
The stew smelled delicious.
1. the sour lemon (to taste)
2. the rough surface (to feel)
3. the excited child (to grow)
4. the relieved students (to seem)
5. the awkward silence (to become)
6. the sweet roses (to smell)
7. the golden wheat (to turn)
8. the confident singer (to look)
15. For each of the following sentences, insert commas where appropriate, in order to separate the interpolated adjectives from the rest of the sentence. For example:
The marshes broad and windy stretched as far as the eye could see.
The marshes, broad and windy, stretched as far as the eye could see.
Delighted and encouraged the researchers continued their efforts.
Delighted and encouraged, the researchers continued their efforts.
1. Leaping and dancing the flames lit up the lakeshore.
2. The bells deep and resonant could be heard a mile away.
3. The flowers sweet-smelling and colorful attracted many bees.
4. Sunny and warm the climate was ideal for tourists.
5. The shears heavy and awkward were difficult to use.
6. Beautiful and delicate the flowers could be found only in the high mountains.
7. Twittering and chirping the birds circled overhead.
8. The children silent and attentive watched the magician closely.
16. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with either the present participle or the past participle of the verb shown in brackets. Use a present participle to refer to something being done by the thing being described; and use a past participle to refer to something which has been done to the thing being described. For example:
The evidence is __________. (to convince)
The evidence is convincing.
The ______ treasure was discovered accidentally. (to hide)
The hidden treasure was discovered accidentally.
1. Yesterday she heard ________________ news. (to surprise)
2. The ______________ tools must be returned by five o'clock. (to rent)
3. The ______________ rabbit stayed perfectly still. (to frighten)
4. We had a ________________ experience. (to frighten)
5. The play is ________________. (to entertain)
6. The ______________ picture hung on the wall. (to complete)
7. That is an ________________ story. (to interest)
8. The king sat on a _______________ chair. (to raise)
9. The situation is _______________. (to alarm)
10. An ______________ bowl covered the cake. (to invert)
11. The _____________ lullaby sent the infant to sleep. (to soothe)
12. A ______________ walkway joined the two buildings. (to cover)
13. They laid the ______________ clothes on the bed. (to fold)
14. _______________ smells floated out of the kitchen. (to entice)
15. He stacked the ______________ wood near the fireplace. (to chop)
17. Each of the following sentences contains an interpolated adjectival phrase which is separated from the noun or pronoun to be modified by another noun or pronoun. For each sentence, underline the word to be modified, and correct the sentence by moving the adjectival phrase so that it is positioned close to the word to be modified. For example:
The bird perched in the tree, folding its wings.
Folding its wings, the bird perched in the tree.
Lighting a cigarette, the door was opened by a young woman.
The door was opened by a young woman, lighting a cigarette.
He searched for his keys, tired from the journey.
Tired from the journey, he searched for his keys.
1. Wanting to entertain us, the story was told to us by a nurse.
2. She decided to apply for the position, attracted by the advertisement.
3. Driving a brightly colored van, the parcel was delivered by a courier.
4. He looked through the book, glancing from time to time at his watch.
5. Wilted from the sun, we replaced the flowers.
6. The fire delighted the children, crackling and throwing off sparks.
7. Our friend made us a cake, wishing to do us a favor.
8. Anticipating an entertaining evening, the arena was soon filled with eager spectators.
18. This exercise contains sentences in which the noun or pronoun to be modified by the interpolated adjectival phrase is missing. Below each sentence is a rewritten, partially corrected version of the sentence. Study the corrections which have already been made, and complete the sentences with personal pronouns which make sense in the sentences. For example:
Incorrect: Following in his footsteps, our destination was soon reached.
Corrected: Following in his footsteps, __ soon reached our destination.
Following in his footsteps, we soon reached our destination.
Incorrect: Finding no one at home, his plans had to be changed.
Corrected: Finding no one at home, __ had to change his plans.
Finding no one at home, he had to change his plans.
1. Incorrect: Anxiously waiting for her guests to appear, the hands of the clock seemed to stand still.
Corrected: As _________ anxiously waited for her guests to appear, the hands of the clock seemed to stand still.
2. Incorrect: Wanting to make a good impression, his hair was carefully combed.
Corrected: Wanting to make a good impression, _____ carefully combed his hair.
3. Incorrect: Knowing what we did, the message was easy to interpret.
Corrected: Knowing what we did, _______ easily interpreted the message.
4. Incorrect: Quickly opening her presents, wrapping paper was scattered all over the floor.
Corrected: Quickly opening her presents, _______ scattered wrapping paper all over the floor.
5. Incorrect: Attempting to dry the dishes, one of the plates slipped out of his hand.
Corrected: As ______ attempted to dry the dishes, one of the plates slipped out of his hand.
6. Incorrect: Having been elected president, her plans could now be carried out.
Corrected: Having been elected president, _____ could now carry out her plans.
7. Incorrect: Wondering what had happened, our questions remained unanswered.
Corrected: Although _____ wondered what had happened, our questions remained unanswered.
8. Incorrect: Entering the room, all eyes were turned in her direction.
Corrected: As _____ entered the room, all eyes were turned in her direction.
9. Incorrect: Rearranging her papers, her notes fell onto the floor.
Corrected: As _____ rearranged her papers, her notes fell onto the floor.
10. Incorrect: Pretending not to mind, their disappointment was obvious.
Corrected: Although _____ pretended not to mind, their disappointment was obvious.
19. Explain the two possible meanings of each of the following sentences.
The flag was lowered at noon.
The work was finished yesterday evening.
ANSWERS for CHAPTER 21. ADJECTIVES: POSITION IN A SENTENCEAnswers to Exercise 1:
1. that new bicycle of mine 2. each of the students 3. neither of those leather briefcases 4. these two books of yours 5. some of her latest inventions 6. that second-hand typewriter of his 7. another of their unusual experiences 8. none of these rubber boots 9. that velvet dress of hers 10. any of those black shoes
Answers to Exercise 2:
1. our ten maps 2. all twenty-five cows 3. that one book 4. six other socks 5. those twenty lamps 6. the two icicles 7. her three manuscripts 8. these twelve folders 9. seven other mistakes 10. two more pencils 11. another five questions 12. which three children
Answers to Exercise 3:
1. her four large envelopes 2. both the small tables 3. those three tiny birds 4. her two tall brothers 5. all six thick quilts 6. his two heavy coats 7. these four huge rooms 8. his ten medium-sized pumpkins
Answers to Exercise 4:
1. your light, short-sleeved jacket 2. three small, curved lenses 3. our warm, damp, four-week-old puppy 4. two unexpected discoveries 5. a thick, heavy, round carpet 6. the hot, humid climate 7. warm, dry blankets 8. their low, oval table
Answers to Exercise 5:
1. green canvas tents 2. crimson Victorian houses 3. white lace curtains 4. yellow Swiss cheese 5. brown wooden ladders 6. pink Venetian blinds 7. black felt hats 8. red Renaissance cabinets
Answers to Exercise 6:
1. a beautiful green leather belt 2. his warm, dry hood 3. two famous, old Shakespearian actors 4. tin, round blue glass beads 5. her lively, six-month-old baby 6. a long white satin dress 7. ten narrow cement steps 8. the cool, damp basement 9. two huge grey Russian wolfhounds 10. three delicate sandalwood carvings
Answers to Exercise 7:
1. a new egg beater 2. a wooden soup ladle 3. a large cookie tin 4. an old scrubbing brush 5. a glass pie plate 6. a light snow shovel 7. a metal hat rack 8. leather jogging shoes 9. a small boat house 10. a wicker bread basket
Answers to Exercise 8:
1. a heavy, round metal watering can 2. her beautiful white porcelain salt shaker 3. two exciting, new Nintendo computer games 4. this small, prickly, two-year-old rose bush 5. these pink cotton table cloths 6. long, trailing green willow branches 7. two medium-sized red fire engines 8. his heavy yellow coffee cup 9. five beautifully-designed, heart-shaped flower beds 10. the broad, imposing blue front door 11. that big green plastic flower pot 12. a warm, damp white flannel bath towel 13. ten large, efficient beige city buses 14. their small, fierce, one-year-old watch dog
Answers to Exercise 9:
"The last interesting chapter" means that this chapter is interesting, but none of the following chapters are interesting.
"The interesting last chapter" means that this is the last chapter, and it is interesting.
Answers to Exercise 10:
At one end of the large, old, rectangular room was a long, low sofa covered with an orange cotton cloth. Against the two wooden arms of the sofa rested red velvet cushions with beautiful, long, dangling silk tassels. Near the sofa was a small, intricately-woven Persian carpet with a fascinating design. Two proud, elegant peacocks with shimmering turquoise feathers were depicted against a background of short, lush grass; clear, reflecting pools and white marble statues in a delightful palace garden.
Answers to Exercise 11:
1. soup bowls 2. a convenient cupboard 3. underwater photography 4. the telephone directory 5. rubber gloves 6. a bread board 7. a sunny day 8. a new kitchen sink 9. long green grass 10. a fine Sunday afternoon 11. a red pencil sharpener 12. the back door 13. a prancing horse 14. an egg beater 15. a gold watch 16. a glass jar 17. a library card 18. the evening star 19. a thick carpet 20. a butter dish
Answers to Exercise 12:
1. The water Is hot. 2. The clouds are large, threatening and grey. 3. The book is thin and blue. 4. The recipe is Spanish. 5. The park is one year old. 6. The umbrellas are collapsible. 7. The basins are large and white. 8. The painting is detailed, colorful and captivating. 9. The child is two years old. 10. The cloth is purple. 11. The service is fast and efficient. 12. The houses are ten months old. 13. The student is intelligent, hard-working, responsible and reliable. 14. The letters are long, well-written and informative.
Answers to Exercise 13:
1. The children are asleep. 2. the main street 3. Our friends are here. 4. Their assistant is afraid. 5. the principal consideration 6. Her brother is alone. 7. The performers are ready. 8. the sheer cliffs 9. The house is there. 10. the chief reason
Answers to Exercise 14:
1. The lemon tasted sour. 2. The surface felt rough. 3. The child grew excited. 4. The students seemed relieved. 5. The silence became awkward. 6. The roses smelled sweet. 7. The wheat turned golden. 8. The singer looked confident.
Answers to Exercise 15:
1. Leaping and dancing, the flames lit up the lakeshore. 2. The bells, deep and resonant, could be heard a mile away. 3. The flowers, sweet-smelling and colorful, attracted many bees. 4. Sunny and warm, the climate was ideal for tourists. 5. The shears, heavy and awkward, were difficult to use. 6. Beautiful and delicate, the flowers could be found only in the high mountains. 7. Twittering and chirping, the birds circled overhead. 8. The children, silent and attentive, watched the magician closely.
Answers to Exercise 16:
1. surprising 2. rented 3. frightened 4. frightening 5. entertaining 6. completed 7. interesting 8. raised 9. alarming 10. inverted 11. soothing 12. covered 13. folded 14. Enticing 15. chopped
Answers to Exercise 17:
1. The story was told to us by a nurse, wanting to entertain us. 2. Attracted by the advertisement, she decided to apply for the position. 3. The parcel was delivered by a courier driving a brightly colored van. 4. Glancing from time to time at his watch, he looked through the book. 5. We replaced the flowers, wilted from the sun. 6. Crackling and throwing off sparks, the fire delighted the children. 7. Wishing to do us a favor, our friend made us a cake. 8. The arena was soon filled with eager spectators, anticipating an entertaining evening.
Answers to Exercise 18:
1. she 2. he 3. we 4. she 5. he 6. she 7. we 8. she 9. she 10. they
Answers to Exercise 19:
"The flag was lowered at noon" can mean: 1) At noon, the flag was already down, or 2) At noon, someone lowered the flag.
"The work was finished yesterday evening" can mean: 1) Yesterday evening, the work was already complete, or 2) Yesterday evening, someone finished the work.